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The term management is used to describe a process and a function in relation to decision making involving the utilization of both physical and human recourses to attain certain objectives. As a process 'management' includes planning, organising, co-ordinating, motivating and controlling the activities of an enterprise and as a function indicates different functional areas such as Personal Management, Marketing Management, Financial Management, Systems Management, Rural Management, Tourist Management, etc.

The terms 'management' describes a function rather than one particular career, a function carried out by people with widely varying qualification and experience. Throughout industry and commerce many managerial, executive and supervisory posts are held by men/women with professional or technical qualifications, e.g. accountants, architects, economists, engineers, lawyers, office managers, personnel managers, scientists, statisticians supply managers and technologists. Indeed practically all the professions are represented in the business world today even medicine and teaching, so that the path to managerial & executive positions may lie in one or the other professions. Such specialists may acquire their professional of technical qualification by full-time study and enter industry and commerce directly at executive level, others may acquire than while employed in industry and commerce as articled clerks, apprentices or trainees.

Within the sphere of management there are various levels of employment from the supervisions of one particular function on the factory floor or in the office, to the over all general control of all the activities of a particular industrial or commercial organization. Organizations also vary widely in type, size, structure and methods of control from the one-man business to the large combine with a controlling board of directors. As at result, terms such as 'executive' or 'departmental managers', or supervisor may have widely different meanings in different firms. The duties and responsibilities of executives and managers vary, therefore, according to the level of employment and the type of firm, some duties calling for a greater degree for specialized training than others. But all management is responsible for the efficient execution of the work of a group of people.

It has long been recognized that efficiency and productivity depend as much on the handling of men as on the handling of machines and materials. The most knowledgeable persons will fail as managers if they do not make themselves personally acceptable to their colleagues in all grades and at all levels. The chances of young men and women progressing to managerial and executive depend, therefore, as much on their personal characteristics and potentialities for leadership on their education, professional or technical qualifications and experience. In other words, although a University degree or a professional or technical qualification may be required for certain, managerial appointments, the possession of such a qualification is not by itself a guarantee of suitability for appointment.

During the last several years, we have seen a gradual shift in the recruitment policy of Indian business houses. While formerly fresh graduates/post graduates were considered suitable recruits for management training programmes, now the required qualifications often include M.B.A./Chartered Accountant/B.E./B.Tech.etc. Here we shall be mainly concerned with the M.B.A. courses, which are 2 years courses after graduation. Admission is given only after an objective type entrance test, group discussion and interview and is highly competitive, proficiency in English is necessary. Employment opportunities for M.B.A. graduates is good. A warning should be sounded her against the mushrooming of many private teaching institutions which offer M.B.A. or similar courses by correspondence and privately. Students should carefully make enquiries about the bonafides of such institutions and the recognition of their diplomas. Affiliation to a recognized University ro recognition by the All India Council for Technical Education is essential.

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