CENTRAL LEVEL COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION - INDIAN FOREST SERVICE EXAM
The examination is held once a year, generally in the month of July. Blank application forms and other particulars are published in the Employment News generally in the month of January. The last date for submission of applications is usually 3rd week of February.
Age: A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 28 years on the first day of July of the year in which examination is held.
The upper age limit may be relaxed in respect of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes and such other categories of persons as may from time to time be notified in this behalf by the Government of India to the extent and subject to the conditions notified in respect of each category.
Educational Qualifications: A candidate must hold a Bachelor's Degree with at least one of the subjects namely, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Zoology or a Bachelor's degree in Agriculture, Forestry or in Engineering of a recognized University or equivalent.
Examination Fee: Rs. 60/- (Rs. Sixty only). No fee for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, etc.
Plan of the Examination:
1. The examination comprises: Written Examination in compulsory and optional subjects
2. Interview for Personality Test of such candidates as may be called by the Commission.
Examination Subjects: The following will be the subjects for the written examination:
· General English
· General Knowledge (150 marks each).
Optional: Any two of the following subjects:
4. Civil Engineering
6. Agricultural Engineering
7. Chemical Engineering
9. Mechanical Engineering
14. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science (200 marks each).
N.B. All the questions papers in the examination will be of conventional (essay) type.
Candidates will be required to write an essay in English. Other questions will be designed to test their understanding of English and workmanlike use of words. Passages will usually be set for summary or precise.
General Knowledge, including knowledge of current events and of such matters of every day observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific subject. The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the Constitution of India, History of India and Geography of a nature which candidate should be able to answer without special study.
Candidates will be required to answer questions from Sections (A) and (B) or Sections (A) and (C) below:
(A) Agricultural Economics:
Meaning and scope of agricultural economics, significance of study and its relationship with other sciences, importance of agriculture in Indian Economy, contribution to national income, comparison with other countries, study of significant economic problems in Indian agricultural production, marketing, Labour, credit, etc.
Nature of study of farm management, it's meaning and scope, relation to other physical and social sciences, concepts and basic principles in farm management. Types and systems of farming; determining factors. Planning for profitable use of land, water, labour and equipment, methods of measuring farm efficiency, nature and purpose of farm book-keeping, farm records and accounts, financial accounting; enterprise accounting and complete cost accounting.
Crop Production-Detailed study of KHARIF crops; Paddy, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Groundnut, Til, Cotton, Sunhemp, Moong, Urd with reference to their introduction, distribution, seedbed preparation, improved varieties; sowing and seed-rate inter-culture, harvesting and physical inputs of production of crops.
Detailed study of important RABI crops; Wheat, Barley, Gram, Mustard, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Berseem with reference to their origin, history, distribution, soil and climate requirements, seedbed preparation, improved varieties, sowing and seed-rate inter-culture, harvesting, storing physical inputs of crops.
Weeds and Weed Control-Classification of weeds; habitat and characteristics of important weeds of India. Injurious effects and losses caused by weeds, chief agencies of weed dissemination, cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.
Principles of Irrigation and Drainage-Necessity and sources of irrigation water, water requirements of crops, common water lifts, duty of water, prevention of wastage of irrigation water, system and methods of irrigation, advantages and limitations of each method. Measurement of irrigation water. Soil moisture, different forms of soil moisture and their importance. Drainage and its necessity, harm caused by excessive water, methods of drainage.
(C) Soil Science and Soi1 Conservation:
Definition of soil, its main components, soil profile, soil-mineral colloids, cation exchange capacity, base-saturation percentage ion exchange, essential nutrients for plant growth, their forms in the soil and their role in plant nutrition.
Soil organic matter, its decomposition and its effects on soil fertility. Acid and alkali soils, their formation and reclamation. Effects of organic manures, green manures and fertilizers on soil properties, properties of common nitrogenous, phosphatic and potassic fertilizers.
Mechanical composition and soil texture, soil pore space, soil structure, soil water, types of soil water; its retention, movement, availability and measurement of soil water. Soil temperature, soil air and its importance. Soil structure, its forms and their effects on the physio-chemical properties of soil.
Soil Morphology and Soil Surveying-Earth's crust; soil forming rocks and minerals; their composition and importance in soil formation. Weathering of rocks and minerals, factors, and processes of soil formation, great soil groups of the World and their agricultural importance. Study of Indian soil. Soil survey and classification.
Principles of Soil Conservation-Soil Erosion, factors effecting erosion, soil conservation, soil properties in relation to agronomic and engineering practices, land drainage, needs and practices for agricultural lands, land use classification, soil conservation, planning and program.
(1) Survey of the Plant Kingdom: Difference between animals and plants--Characteristics of living organisms-Unicellular and multi-cellular organisms-Viruses, basis of the division of the plant kingdom.
(i) Unicellular plants-Cell, its structure and contents: division and multiplication of cells.
(ii) Multi-cellular plants-Differentiation of the body of nonvascular plants and vascular plants; external and internal morphology of vascular plants.
(3) Life History:
Of at least one member of the following categories of plants; Bacteria Cyanophyceae, Cholorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae, Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, liver-worts, Mosses, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Principles of classification; Principal systems of classification of angiosperms; distinctive features and economic importance of the following families; Graminea, Scitaminae, Palmaceae, Liliaceae, Orchidaceae, Moraceae, Loranthaceae, Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae, Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Malvaceae, Apocynaceae Ascleidaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Myrtaceae, Umbeliferae, Solanaceae, Rubiceae, Cucurbitaceae, Verbanceae and Compositae.
(5) Plant Physiology:
Autotrophy, heterotrophy, intake of water and nutrients, transpirations, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, respiration, growth reproduction; plant/animal relation; symbiosis, parasitism, enzymes, auxins, hormones, photoariodism.
(6) Plant Pathology:
Cause and cure of plant diseases; disease organisms, Viruses, deficiency disease; disease resistance.
(7) Plant Ecology:
The basic facts relating to ecology and plant geography, with special relation to Indian flora and the botanical regions of India.
(8) General Biology:
Cytology, Genetics, Plant breeding, Mendelism, Hybrid vigour, Mutation, Evolution.
(9) Economic Botany:
Economic uses of plants, especially flowering plants, in relation to human welfare, particularly with reference to such vegetable products as food grains, pulses, fruit, sugar and starches, oilseeds, spices, beverages, fibres, woods, rubber, drugs and essential oils.
(10) History of Botany:
A general familiarity with the development of knowledge relating to the Botanical Science.
(1) Inorganic Chemistry:
Electronic configuration of elements, Aufbau principle, Periodic classification of elements. Atomic Number, Transition elements and their characteristics.
Atomic and ionic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity and electro negativity.
Natural and artificial radioactivity. Nuclear fission and fusion.
Electronic theory of valency. Elementary ideas about sigma and pie-bonds, hybridization and directional nature of covalent bonds.
Werner's theory of coordination compounds. Electronic configurations of complexes involved in the common metallurgical and analytical operations.
Oxidation states and Oxidation number. Common oxidizing and reducing agents, Ionic equations.
Lewis and Bronsted theories of acids and bases. Chemistry of the common elements and their compounds treated especially from the point of view of periodic classification. Principles of extraction isolation (and metallurgy) of important elements.
Structures of hydrogen peroxide, diborane, aluminium chloride and the important oxyacids of nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorine and sulphur.
Inert gases: Isolation and Chemistry. Principles of inorganic chemical analysis.
Outlines of the manufacture of: Sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, ammonia, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, cement, glass and artificial fertilizers.
(2) Organic Chemistry:
Modern concepts of covalent bonding. Electron displacements-Inductive meso-meric and hyper conjugative effects. Resonance and its applications to Organic Chemistry. Effects of structure on dissociation constants.
Alkanes, alkynes and alkenes. Petroleum as a source of organic compounds. Simple derivatives of aliphatic compounds. Alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, halides, esters and ethers and anhydrides chlorides and amides. Mono-basic hydroxy, ketonic and amino acids-Organometallic compounds and acetoacetic esters. Tartaric citric, maleic and fumaric acids. Carbohydrates, classification and general reactions. Glucose, fructose and sucrose.
Stereochemistry: Optical and geometrical isomerism concept of conformation.
Benzene and its simple derivatives: Toluene, xylenes, phenols, halides, nitro and amino compounds. Benzoic, salicyclic, cinnamic, mandelic and sulphonic acids. Aromatic aldehydes and ketones. Diazo, azo and hydrazo compounds. Aromatic substitution. Naphthalene, pyridine and quinoline.
(3) Physical Chemistry:
Kinetic theory of gases and gas laws, Maxwell's law of distribution of velocities. Van der Waal's equation. Law of corresponding states, Liquefaction of gases. Specific heats of gases. Ratio of Cp/Cv.
Thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic expansion. Enthalpy, Heat capacities. Thermo chemistry-heats of reaction, formation solution and combustion. Calculation of bond energies. Kirchhoff equation.
Criteria for spontaneous changes. Second law of Thermodynamics. Entropy. Free Energy. Criteria of Chemical equilibrium.
Solution, Osmotic pressure, lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point. Determination of molecular weights in solution. Association, dissociation of solutes.
Chemical equilibrium, Law of mass action and its applications to homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium. Le Chatelier's principle. Influence of temperature on chemical equilibrium.
Electrochemistry: Faraday's laws of electrolysis, conductivity of an electrolyte: equivalent conductivity and its variation with dilution; solubility of sparingly soluble salts, electrolytic dissociation. Ostwald's dilution law; anomaly of strong electrolytes; solubility product, strength of acids and bases; hydrolysis of salts; hydrogen ion concentration buffer action; theory of indicators.
Standard hydrogen and calomel electrodes and red-ox-potentials. Concentration cells. Determination of pH. Transport number, Ionic product of water. Potentiometric titrations.
Chemical Kinetics: Molecularity and order of a reaction. First order and second order reactions. Determination of order of a reaction, temperature coefficients and energy of activation. Collision theory of reaction rates. Activated complex theory.
Phase rule: Explanation of the terms involved. Applications to one and two component system. Distribution law. Colloids: general nature of colloidal solutions and their classification; general methods of preparation and properties of Colloids. Coagulation, protective action, gold number.
Absorption. Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Promoters. Poisoning.
Photochemistry: Laws of Photochemistry. Simple numerical problems.
(1) Building material and properties and strength of materials:
Building materials-Timber, stone, brick, lime, tile, sand, surkhi, mortar and concrete, metal and glass-Structural properties of metals and alloys used in engineering practice.
Stress and strains-Hook's law-Bending Torsion and direct stresses. Elastic theory of bending of beams, maximum and minimum stresses due to eccentric loading. Bending moment and Shear force. diagrams and deflection of beams under static and live loads.
(2) Building construction and water supply and sanitary Engineering:
Construction-Brick and stone, masonry, walls, floors and roofs, staircases, carpentry in wooden floors, roofs, ceiling, doors and windows, finishes (plastering, pointing, painting and varnishing, etc.).
Soil mechanics-Soils and their investigations, bearing capacities and foundations of buildings and structures principles of design.
Building estimates-Principal units of measurement: Taking out quantities for buildings and preparation of abstract of costs-specifications and Data sheets for important items.
Water supply-Sources of water, standards of purity,
Methods of purification, layout of distribution system, pumps and boosters.
Sanitation-Sewers, storm water overflows, house drainage requirements and appurtenances, septic tanks. Imhoff tanks, sewage treatment and dispersion trenches-Activated sludge process.
(3) Roads and bridges:
Survey and alignment-Highway materials and their placements. Principles of design-width of foundation and pavement. camber gradient curves and super-elevation-retaining walls.
Construction-Earth roads, stabilized and water-bound macadam roads, bituminous surfaces and concrete roads, draining of roads. Bridges-Types, economical spans IRC loadings, designing super-structure of small span bridge Principles of designing, foundation of abutments and piers of bridges, pile and well foundations. Estimating earthwork for roads and canals.
(4) Structural Engineering:
Steel structures-Permissible stresses, Design of beams, simple and built-up columns and simple roof trusses and girders, column bases and grillages for axially and eccentrically loaded columns-Bolted rivets and welded connections.
R.C.C. structures-Specification of materials used proportioning workability and strength requirement-I.S.I. standards for design loads, permissible stresses in R.C.C. members subject to direct and bending stress-Design of simply supported overhanging and cantilever beams, rectangular and Tee beams in floors, roofs and lintels-axially loaded columns-their bases.